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Taras Shevchenko

Encyclopedia of the life and works



Taras Shevchenko


Source of the text:

- autograph in a separate notebook – improvised album, produced from the nine smaller numbered notebook, framed in a beautiful brown morocco with stamped on the front side frames with gold words: "Diary by Shevchenko from 12 June 1857 to 13 July 1858 year", below – "July 12, 1858 year", with the inscription by M. Lazarevsky's hand on the back of the last, 104-th sheet, "This diary given by Taras Shevchenko July 12, 1858 in the name day of Lazarevsky" (T. Shevchenko Institute of Literature of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, department of manuscripts, Fund 1, № 104).

Published after autograph.

Dated on autograph, where the first entry marked "12 June" (1857), the latter – "13 July" (1858): 12 June 1857, Novopetrovsk strengthening – 13 July 1858, St. Petersburg.

First published by autograph with many forced cuts and rewriting because of censorship in the journal "Osnova (The base)" (text was prepared by L.M. Zhemchuzhnykov): 1861. – № 5. – p. 6-13; № 6. – p. 5-16; № 7. – p. 7-18; № 8. – p. 3-15; № 9. – p. 13-24; № 11. – p. 6-16; 1862. – № 1. – p. 7-16; № 2. – p. 3-29; № 3. – p. 20-33; № 4. – p. 31-45; № 5. – p. 14-25; № 6. – p. 3-14; № 7. – p. 17-29; № 8. – p. 5-20.

Censorship was not given the opportunity to submit full text of journal and forced to pass politically sharp recordings of the poet and rewrite some places. To this added another obstacle, ethical manner. Written in 1857-1858 biennium, a diary was still too fresh document, so one can print full immediately after the death of the poet. Mentioned in it people were still alive and, of course, would resent the publication of the diary for some, their concern. Printed in the "Osnova" fragments covered almost the entire text of the diary, but contained many notes, sometimes quite large (not published, in particular, the record of 21 June 1857), in some cases – partial processing of text. Some names were encrypted.

But even so, a reduced publication with cuts of censorship and ethical character, provoked denunciations of the magazine. Finishing in eighth book, 1862 printing the diary, the editors noted in a footnote:

"We were criticized, why we printed the entire diary, not excluding the many little things – and not entertaining, and at the same time too drew the dark side of the home the poet's life. According to these strict judges, the poet's image should be bright and majestic as it works: should pick out the best page from the diary, rather than putting those details that would be unpleasant to read most of Shevchenko".

Not taking these accusations, the editors of "Osnova" so laid out their views on the diary of the poet:

"We were guided by another thought, and we, however, regret that they were forced to release some of the places where a strong reaction and resentment, and hatred, bile and sentences, and mockery, we believe that the poet would not reproach us for it. Shevchenko, concealed only by living their intimate thoughts and the most delicate manifestations of his heart, but never tried to hide, let alone paint those spots that are left on him hard and laborious life, kept him from cradle to grave in a black body. He has never climbed on stilts, has never played a role; being without the slightest effort truly sublime, inimitable in its large creatures (many of which have not yet published), he never stood to his full height, becoming a close hand in hand with ordinary people, ordinary… let us in the printed Journal Shevchenko will see only what it was, let him out of it will understand that our addiction is not something that is afraid of the truth for their favorites. The one who had every right to treat his muse – to his chief vocation – with words:

We do not be cunning with you

We just went: we have no

Grains lying by themselves -

so truth is not a terrible" [Osnova. – 1862. – № 8. – p. 19].

Together with M. Lazarevsky and L. Zhemchuzhnykov edition in "Osnova" was first attracted to gravity and significance of Shevchenko's diary and made his first post so conscientiously and carefully as it was then possible.

First introduced to the collected works, in: Complete Works of Taras Shevchenko. – Volume 4. Daily records (Journal). Text. Primary versions. Commentary / Editorial and introductory remarks by Acad. Sergey Efremov. – Kiev: DVU, 1927. In the preface "From the editor" organizer of preparing this volume S.Efremov noted that "tried [together with the editor-textologist M.M. Novitsky. – Ed.] as little as possible to deviate from primary text, the details, even to the punctuation, very peculiar of Shevchenko, trying to give an exact copy of the original "(p. VI). Publication prepared as diplomatic, documentary and is an exact reprint of the text of Shevchenko's diary by means a new set of printing. First presented the initial version of the text, over 650 pages of the volume occupied by the detailed and substantial comments written by the editor (432 comments) and engaged him to work colleagues, professionals from different fields.

After the illegal repression, which collapsed S.Efremov as a result of artificially fabricated process of the so-called Union of Ukraine's liberation, complete edition of Shevchenko has stopped, its third and fourth volumes were withdrawn or found themselves in secret storages.

Following publication of Shevchenko's diary returned from a diplomatic type publications to critical publications. Critically reviewed the text of the diary is given in academic editions: The Complete Works of Taras Shevchenko in ten volumes (T. 5. – K., 1951) and the complete works in six volumes (T. 5. – K., 1964). In 1972 the publishing house "Naukova Dumka" by publishing the diary in phototypic way.

L.N. Bolshakov (with the participation of N.O.Vishnevskaya)

After publication: T. H. Shevchenko Complete Works in 12 – s volumes. – K.: Naukova Dumka, 2003, v. 5, p. 9 – 185 (canonical text), p. 285 – 304 (variants), p. 316 – 418 (notes).